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Papers of Carl J. Friedrich


Carl Joachim Friedrich (1901-1984) was a poltical scientist, political advisor, and educator. These papers document his professional activities including research, writing, teaching, and advising.


  • Creation: 1919-1975


Conditions on Use and Access

Permission of the archivists is required for access to the collection. Portions are closed. Consult reference staff in the Harvard University Archives for details.


77 cubic feet (231 containers)

These papers document Carl Joachim Friedrich's professional activities including research, writing, teaching, and political advising.

Biographical Note

Carl Joachim Friedrich (1901-1984) was a poltical scientist, political advisor, and educator. He was Eaton Professor of the Science of Government at Harvard from 1955 to 1971.

He first came to the United States in 1922 with a group of European students on a lecture tour to discuss the problems facing post-war European youth.

His Harvard career began in 1926 when he became a lecturer in the Government Department. He became an Associate Professor of Government in 1927 and a full professor in 1936. He became a member of the faculty of the Graduate School of Public Administration in 1938. During World War II he helped to found the School of Overseas Administration at Harvard to train officers for work in military government abroad, and he was its Director from 1943-1946. He became professor emeritus at Harvard upon his retirement in 1971.

His academic and research career ranged beyond Harvard. He was educated at the Universities of Marburg, Frankfurt and Vienna. He studied philosophy and natural sciences and eventually took a Ph.D. in history and economics from the University of Heidelberg in 1925. He was Professor of Political Science at the University of Heidelberg from 1956 to 1966, where he founded and helped to develop the Institut für Politische Wissenschaft. He served as President of the American Political Science Association in 1962, the International Political Science Association from 1967-1970, and the Institut international de philosophie politique in 1969; he belonged to numerous professional organizations. He was made Emeritus in 1966 at the University of Heidelberg. Friedrich received honorary degrees from six institutions, and he was awarded the Knight Commander's Cross of the German Order of Merit by the President of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1967 for his continuing efforts and assistance in the development of the West German Republic and its relations with the U.S.

His main areas of interest before World War II were the history of modern political thought, the problems of leadership and bureaucracy in government,public administration,comparative political institutions, and American foreign policy. Early works include Responsible Bureaucracy (1932), the introduction to a reprint of the Politica methodice digesta of Johannes Althusius (1932), Constitutional Government and Politics (1937) and Foreign Policy In the Making: The Search for a New Balance of Power (1938).

He also was interested in public opinion and propaganda. He was vice-president of the Radio Council of Greater Boston and the director of the Radio Broadcasting Project. He served on the Executive Committee of the Council For Democracy during World War II, whose aim was to convince the American people of the importance of fighting totalitarianism to preserve democratic institutions. In this capacity he directed the Committee of Correspondence which published pamphlets on aspects of democracy and was head of the New England Branch of the Council. In 1942 he published The New Belief In The Common Man.

After the war, he was involved in the reconstruction of Germany. From 1947 to 1948 he served as Constitutional and Governmental Affairs Advisor to the Military Governor of Germany, Lucius D. Clay. He participated in the work leading to the drafting of the German constitution of the Federal Republic.

His international poliltical advising went beyond Germany. He he applied his knowledge of constitutional theory and practice and his belief in the virtues of federalism as constitutional advisor to Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the European Ad Hoc Assembly, which was set up to draft a constitution for the European Political Community in the early 1950s.

His interests were diverse. In 1952 he published The Age of Baroque, a work which reflected his fascination with this period of history. In 1953 he published Philosophy of Kant and in 1954 Philosophy of Hegel.

He was born June 5, 1901 in Leipzig, Saxony, Germany and died September 19, 1984, in Massachusetts.

Series and Subseries

  1. Biographical Material
  2. ___Diaries, 1919, 1938-1972
  3. ___Honorary degrees
  4. Correspondence
  5. ___Alphabetical, 1925-1952
  6. ___Alphabetical, ca.1930s-1970s
  7. ___Chronological, ca. 1924-1975
  8. ______Ca.1924-1931
  9. ______Ca.1931-1940
  10. ______Ca.1940-1964
  11. ______Ca.1962-1975
  12. ___Chronological outgoing, 1972-1973
  13. ___Correspondence from Heidelberg, 1957-1975
  14. Teaching and Harvard
  15. ___Recommendations
  16. ___Correspondence relating to students, 1947-1952
  17. ___Papers relating to School for Overseas Administration, 1942-1945
  18. ___Student papers prepared for courses taught by C. J. Friedrich at the University of Heidelberg, 1966-1968
  19. ___Course materials and student papers: Harvard, 1934-1959
  20. Political Advising and Professional Organizations
  21. ___Council for Democracy, 1940-1942
  22. ___Refugee material, 1930s-1940s
  23. ___Public Policy, 1940s
  24. ___Planning material, ca. 1940s
  25. ___Military government for Germany, correspondence and reports, 1947-1948
  26. ___Office of Military Government, Germany, 1947-1948
  27. ___United Europe materials, ca. 1952-1972
  28. ___American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy, ca.1954-1967
  29. ___Balzan International Foundation, prize committee papers, ca.1962-1964
  30. Writings and Lectures
  31. ___Publishing files, ca.1957-1972
  32. ___Lectures, speeches, articles, and doctoral disseratation, 1925-1973
  33. ___Books, articles, lectures, testimony, 1935-1970 (chiefly 1935-1957)
  34. Recordings of radio broadcasts, World War II

Acquisitions Information

The papers were acquired in unnumbered accessions prior to 1977 and the following:

  1. Accession: 8272; received: December 1, 1977, from Mrs. [Lenore] Friedrich
  2. Accession: 8287; received: December 19, 1977, from Mrs. [Lenore] Friedrich
  3. Accession: 8290; received: January 5, 1978, from Mrs. [Lenore] Fredrich
  4. Accession: 8969; received: July 29, 1980, from Mrs. [Lenore] Friedrich
  5. Accession: 9843; received: August 22, 1983, from Mrs. [Lenore] Friedrich
  6. Accession: 11523; received: September 12, 1988, from Littauer Library
  7. Accession: 12352; received: January 24, 1992, from Universität Heidelberg
  8. Accession: 12383; received: March 25, 1992, from Universität Heidelberg
  9. Accession: 12517; received: September 1, 1992, from Littauer Library
  10. Accession: 13254; received: January 23, 1996, from Maria Friedrich

Last Update to Inventory

This document last updated 2016 October 24.

Friedrich, Carl J. (Carl Joachim), 1901- Papers of Carl J. Friedrich : an inventory
Language of description

Repository Details

Part of the Harvard University Archives Repository

Holding nearly four centuries of materials, the Harvard University Archives is the principal repository for the institutional records of Harvard University and the personal archives of Harvard faculty, as well as collections related to students, alumni, Harvard-affiliates and other associated topics. The collections document the intellectual, cultural, administrative and social life of Harvard and the influence of the University as it emerged across the globe.

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