Papers of Jared Sparks, 1820-1861, 1866.
Jared Sparks (1789-1866) was the President of Harvard University from February 1, 1849 to February 10, 1853. He was also a Unitarian minister, editor, and historian.
- Sparks, Jared, 1789-1866 (Person)
Conditions on Use and Access
Permission of the University Archives is required for access to the Papers of Jared Sparks. Researchers are advised to use published versions of these papers, both because of the fragility of the originals and their nineteenth-century orthography, which may make them difficult to read for those who are unaccustomed to it. Please consult the reference staff for further details. Additional restrictions may apply.
Extent0.4 cubic feet (2 document boxes, 2 microfilm reels)
The Papers of Jared Sparks consist entirely of correspondence, the bulk of which documents Sparks's administration of Harvard University. This collection contains very little information about Spark's personal or family life.
Sparks displayed an interest in literary and historical pursuits in grammar school, becoming known as the "genius." Interested in astronomy, in 1807, Sparks observed a comet with a homemade cross-staff. At 18 he worked as a journeyman carpenter and school teacher. His study of mathematics and Latin began at the age of 20. With the aid of a local pastor, Sparks obtained a scholarship to the Phillips Exeter Academy. At Exeter, Sparks wrote articles on education and astronomy for the local newspaper. In 1811, Sparks was admitted to Harvard University. He dropped out of college in 1812 for financial reasons and tutored a family in Havre de Grace, Maryland, where he witnessed a British naval bombardment during the War of 1812. Sparks later published an account of this event in the North American Review. Returning to Harvard University, Sparks (A.B. 1815) became a leader in his class. He won the Bowdoin prize with an essay on Isaac Newton, joined the Phi Beta Kappa, and delivered a commencement part at graduation. From 1817 to 1819, while studying at the Harvard Divinity School, Sparks served as a tutor of geometry,astronomy, and natural history.
After leaving Harvard University, Sparks became a minister at the First Independent Church (Unitarian) in Baltimore,Maryland, and for one year was the chaplain of the United States Congress. He was a popular preacher and was invited to speak throughout the southern United States. Nevertheless, Sparks, whose feelings for the ministry were at best lukewarm, resigned his position in April 1823. He returned to Cambridge, Massachusetts, and embarked on a new career as the owner and editor of the North American Review.
Sparks's literary talents began to be recognized with the publication of The Life of John Ledyard (1828). In 1827, Sparks began what was to become his greatest effort, the publication of the writings of George Washington. Assembling material for this work, Sparks started searching for primary source material at Washington's home at Mount Vernon,Virginia, and also at other public and private archives around the country. Moreover, he interviewed and questioned survivors of the American Revolution and visited and mapped historic Revolutionary War sites. The first of twelve volumes of The Writings of George Washington appeared in 1834 and the last in 1837.
Sparks became a pioneer in the collecting of manuscript material and argued in an important groundbreaking essay in the North American Review that before the history of the United States could be written, the historical manuscripts and archives of the nation had to be assembled and made more accessible. Over the next several years Sparks wrote and published several multivolume works including, The Life of Governeur Morris (1832), The Works of Benjamin Franklin (1836-1840), and The Library of American Biography (1834-1838). To gather materials for The Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution (1829-1830), Sparks became the first American historian to travel to Europe and investigate foreign primary source documents.
Sparks was instrumental in the systematic collection and saving of historical documents from the Revolutionary War era. His efforts were a boon to students and historians for the next fifty years. He also judged his audience correctly, for Sparks's books sold well and turned a handsome profit.
Despite Sparks's efforts he was not free from criticism. His critics noted that he edited original documents freely, corrected spellings and capitalization, and undertook to improve his subject's English grammar. Holding an American Romantic historian viewpoint, Sparks was inclined to portray his subjects without blemish and in a favorable light. Therefore, in order to avoid offense and embarrassment, Sparks freely edited the letters of historical figures before publication. It should be noted, however, that Sparks was following the common practice of the historians of his day and that the American public had no desire to see their heroes revealed or exposed in a negative fashion.
On February 1, 1849, Sparks was elected President of Harvard University. Although Sparks's election was welcomed by both the student body and Harvard community, he was unhappy as president, and his administration was short-lived. Tired of petty disciplinary duties and clerical responsibilities, Sparks resigned his position on February 10, 1853 to continue pursuing his literary interests.
In his short administration, Sparks was able to arrange and reclassify the early records of Harvard University. Ironically, Sparks himself is indirectly responsible for the existence of this very document describing his papers.
Although Sparks's writings cannot be regarded as definitive because of his editorial methods, he was nevertheless, a pioneer in documentary editing. Moreover, he was instrumental in introducing the American public to a new conception of their history and providing a host of future writers and historians access to documents that, without his efforts, would have been lost.
Jared Sparks. In The Middle Group of American Historians.New York: The Macmillan Company, 1917.
Patriots, Romantics-and Hildreth. In The Writing of American History.Norman, Oklahoma:University of Oklahoma Press, 1953.
Jared Sparks. In Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. XVII, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1933.
Series and Subseries in the Collection
- Harvard Correspondence
- ___College Letters
- ___Loose Harvard Letters
- Personal Letters
- Letters of Mary C. Sparks
The Papers of Jared Sparks were acquired by the Harvard University Archives through donation and purchase. Whenever possible the archivist noted the terms of acquisition in the folder list below. The acquisitions are as follows:
- undated, Bernard Knowllenberg
- 1936 Philip Spaulding
- 1940 Bright Fund
- 1942 Thomas Barbour
- 1946 Frederick Pratt
- 1949 William A. Walter
- 1958 Henry Wilder Foote
- 1975 Harvard University President's Office
- Accession number: 11230; 1987 September 21
- Accession number: 13745; 1998 April 21
- Accession number: 14936; 2003 November 20
- Accession number: 18405; 2011 September 30
This document last updated 2017 August 30.
- Records of the Harvard Corporation.
Search HOLLIS (Harvard's online library system) for works by and about Jared Sparks.
Citations to published versions of the documents in this collection are noted in the folder lists.
Most of this material was first classified and described in the Harvard University Archives shelflist prior to 1980. In 2005, Dominic P. Grandinetti re-processed these papers. Re-processing included the integration of unprocessed accessions, the rearrangement and rehousing of the material in appropriate containers, and the establishment of this finding aid.
In the folder lists below, wording such as "in Sparks's handwriting" or "handwritten" have been used instead of the terminology "autograph" or "holograph."
Published versions of the documents in this collection are noted in the folder lists.
- Sparks, Jared, 1789-1866. Papers of Jared Sparks : an inventory
- Harvard University Archives
- Language of description
- EAD ID
Part of the Harvard University Archives Repository
Holding nearly four centuries of materials, the Harvard University Archives is the principal repository for the institutional records of Harvard University and the personal archives of Harvard faculty, as well as collections related to students, alumni, Harvard-affiliates and other associated topics. The collections document the intellectual, cultural, administrative and social life of Harvard and the influence of the University as it emerged across the globe.
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