- Harvard Advocate (Organization) (Organization)
Conditions on Use and Access
Extent5.7 cubic feet ((13 document boxes, 6 portfolio boxes) exclusive of publications)
History of the Harvard Advocate
Early Student Magazines at Harvard
The first Harvard magazine, The Harvard Lyceum, was founded in 1810, but closed after only nine months. Between 1810 and 1840, four more student magazines started, the last being The Harvard Magazine, which folded after ten years in 1864. In the spring of 1866, the first issue of the Collegian was published. Harvard administrators forced the Collegian to close after only three issues when its defiant editors challenged mandatory student attendance at chapel.
Undaunted, a group of former Collegian editors led by William G. Peckman (Harvard Class of 1867) and Charles S. Gage (Harvard Class of 1867) released the first issue of a new magazine, the Harvard Advocate. The Harvard Advocate, adopted the motto Veritas nihil veretur (Truth fears nothing) and continued its predecessors' attempts to represent the views and opinions of Harvard students. The first issue was a great success and sold out immediately.
Early Years to World War I
The early issues of the Advocate were bi-weekly and in newspaper format. The Advocate reported on football and baseball games, printed traditional verses, and taunted members of the faculty. Editorials became an important part of the newspaper and promoted the introduction of electives to the curriculum, admission of women to the college, and supported opposition to the University's book store monopoly. Although primarily a means by which undergraduates could practice their writing skills, members of the faculty were invited to contribute prose and verse to the newspaper as well.
The Advocate's literary and financial success encouraged other student publishing efforts. In 1873, a group of former Advocate staffers formed the Magenta which later became the Harvard Crimson . Additional defectors from the Advocate started the humor magazine the Harvard Lampoon in 1876 and a serious journal, the Harvard Monthly in 1885.
By the close of the 1890s, the Harvard Advocate had adopted its present format. Coverage of College news diminished, and poetry and short stories became prominent. The magazine had also established traditions such as annual and decennial dinners, published supplements, literary prizes, and an editor's catalogue.
By 1916, the Harvard Advocate's offices had become a gathering place for Cambridge's literary world to meet and socialize. In the period prior to World War I, a number of future literary giants such as Wallace Stevens, E. E. Cummings, T. S. Eliot, and Conrad Aiken, published frequently in the Advocate .
Between the Wars
The Harvard Advocate was the only Harvard publication to continue operation during World War I. After the war, the Advocate adopted a more political tone, publishing articles such as Persecution and Americanism by Lloyd McKim (Harvard Class of 1919) and The Liberalism of Herbert Hoover by Archibald MacLeish (Harvard Class of 1919). The Advocate also published parodies of other magazines including The Atlantic Monthly , Time , The Saturday Review , The New Republic , and The New Yorker.
It published a series of special issues in 1938 and 1940 devoted to T. S. Eliot and Wallace Stevens. Members of the editorial board included students who became literary luminaries such as James Agee, Robert Fitzgerald, Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., and Norman Mailer. In addition, the Advocate published contributions from established authors who were not Harvard affiliates, such as Ezra Pound, Boris Pasternak, and William Carlos Williams. Falling college enrollment and tight finances during World War II caused the Advocate to suspend publication in 1943.
After World War II, a small group of the magazine's trustees worked to reestablish the Advocate and by the late 1940s the magazine was up and running again. The goal of the newly established Harvard Advocate was to create a high-quality magazine that would sell. Special issues devoted to William Faulkner (1951), British novelists (1952), and Robert Lowell (1961) gained critical acclaim. The magazine became noted for the variety of its undergraduate poetry and its support of the literary efforts of the beat generation in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Advocate editors introduced a new feature, The Harvard Square Sex Story which was discontinued by the end of the 1950s.
The Vietnam Era and After
During the 1970s, the Harvard Advocate faced increasing competition for readership and writers on campus from new magazines and alternative creative forums. Many of these competitors shifted away from the established literary circle to focus on specific cultural or community groups, provided an outlet for writers, poets, and other artists not interested in producing for a high-pressure publication, and produced issues that were inexpensively printed and distributed.
The Advocate took a number of steps to meet these new challenges. First, it increased opportunities for new writers. It opened to the public writing contests which had formerly been closed, it limited the number of times an individual could be published in order to increase the pool of writers, and it welcomed contributions from outside of the undergraduate community. Second, to promote itself, the magazine sponsored readings, art shows, and music events and it strengthened its relationships with other campus organizations. Third, it changed its staff to better reflect the entire student body by increasing the number of women and members of minority groups.
Baldwin, Thomas Tileston.
History of the Harvard Advocate.In Catalogue of the Editors of the Harvard Advocate 1866-1886 to which is prefixed a short history of the paper. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Board of the Harvard Advocate, 1886.
Bethell, John T., Richard M. Hunt, and Robert Shenton. Harvard A to Z. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2004.
Culler, Jonathan D., ed. Harvard Advocate Centennial Anthology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman Publishing Company, Inc., 1966.
A Sheet of the Right Character: The Harvard Advocate at 125.The Harvard Advocate, February 1992, 2-6.
Harvard University. Harvard University Handbook: An Official Guide to the Grounds, Buildings, Libraries, Museums, and Laboratories, with Notes on the History, Development and Activities of all Departments of the University. Cambridge: Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1936.
Jal D. Mehta,
New Magazine Makes Debut Today,The Harvard Crimson, 28 February 1996.
Liza M. Velazquez,
Literary Magazines Explore New Directions,The Harvard Crimson, 1 March 1990.
Nicole B. Usher,
Advocate Elects New Board,The Harvard Crimson, 13 December 1999.
Old Clubs in a New Era,The Harvard Crimson, 4 December 1991.
Patrick M. McKee and Joshua P. Rogers,
Advocate Faces College Pressure,The Harvard Crimson, 4 May 2004.
Obsolete Call Numbers
- HUD 3000pf Posters: moved to General Information and ephemera, Posters.
- HUD 3121.xxx General folder: moved to General Information and ephemera, Posters.
- HUD 3121.xxx General folder: moved to General Information and ephemera, Invitations and Programs.
- HUD 3121.xxx General folder: moved to General Information and ephemera, News clippings.
- HUD 3121.241 Hillyer, R.S. MS. address for seventy-fifth anniversary: moved to General Information and ephemera, Address given by Robert S. Hillyer at the Harvard Advocate's Seventy-Fifth Anniversary.
- HUD 3121.505 Minutes, 1918-1934, 1951-1954: moved to Business Records, Meeting Minutes.
- HUD 3121.521 Correspondence, 1886-1887: moved to Business Records, Correspondence.
- HUD 3121.522 Correspondence with office files, 1906-1938: moved to Business Records, Correspondence.
- HUD 3121.522 Correspondence with office files, 1906-1938: moved to Business Records, Correspondence.
- HUD 3121.522 Correspondence with office files, 1906-1938: moved to The Constitution of the Harvard Advocate.
- HUD 3121.702 Accounts receivable, 1930-1943: moved to Business Records, Financial Records, Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable Ledgers.
- HUD 3121.709 Bonds (paid), 1936-1937: moved to Records of the Harvard Advocate Trustees, Bonds.
- HUD 3121.713 Check stubs, 1933-1941: moved to Business Records, Financial Records, Check Stubs.
- HUD 3121.715 Comment Books (Editor's), 1973-1981: moved to Business Records, Comment Books.
- HUD 3121.729 Forms (includes letter to Roy E. Larsen, May 28, 1918): moved to Business Records, Correspondence.
- HUD 3121.742f Journal, 1908-1917: moved to Business Records, Financial Records, General Journal.
- HUD 3121.749f Ledger, 1919-1920: moved to Business Records, Financial Records, General Ledger.
- HUD 3121.752 Medals: moved to General Information and ephemera, William Bentinck-Smith's Harvard Advocate Medal.
- HUD 3121.779f Scrapbooks, various dates: moved to General Information and ephemera, Scrapbooks.
- HUD 3121.909 Guest book, 1909-1974 and folder or paper found inside book: moved to General Information and ephemera, Guest Signature.
- HUD 3121.913 Papers relating to proposed merger with the Harvard Monthly: moved to Business Records, Correspondence.
- HUD 3121.941 Bentinck-Smith, W. Papers as a Trustee of the Harvard Advocate, 1941-1961: moved to Records of the Harvard Advocate Trustees, Correspondence.
- HUD 3121.945 Financial and legal records of the Harvard Advocate Trustees, 1955-1977: moved to Records of the Harvard Advocate Trustees, Financial and Legal Materials.
- undated, Samuel Hinckley
- 1876 Editors of the Harvard Advocate, Class of 1873
- 1886 Gratis
- 1887 Editors of the Harvard Advocate, Class of 1886
- 1896 Mary Osgood Fund
- 1897 Editors of the Harvard Advocate
- 1912 Mrs. W.M. Taussig
- 1916 William Sumner Appleton
- 1925 Harvard College Library
- 1926 Albert Bushnell Hart
- 1931 Harris Kennedy
- 1935 William Bentinck-Smith
- 1936 Mrs. W.P. Derby
- 1938 The Harvard Advocate
- 1938 Mrs. Winthrop Talbot
- 1939 Theodore L. Frothingham
- 1940 Charles Warren
- 1940 Walter W. Wright
- 1941 Gratis
- 1941 The Harvard Advocate
- 1943 Albert G. Waite
- 1944 Estate of Albert Bushnell Hart
- 1944 John W. Cummin
- 1945 Gratis
- 1946 Signet Society
- 1947 The Harvard Advocate
- 1947 Southworth Lancaster
- 1949 A.D. Club
- 1949 Gratis
- 1953 William Bentinck-Smith
- 1955 The Harvard Advocate
- 1956 Harvard University Library
- 1962 Arthur D. Graeff
- 1963 William Bentinck-Smith
- 1965 Estate of H. De Wolf
- 1966 Harvard University Library
- 1969 Rosamund and Annie Lamb
- 1977 Harvard University Library
- 1978 The Harvard Advocate
- 1982 The Harvard Advocate
- 2002 The Louis N. Littauer Foundation
- Accession number: 08068; 1977 March 3
- Accession number: 08094; 1977 April 13
- Accession number: 08817; 1980 January 2
- Accession number: 08898; 1980 June 2
- Accession number: 11911; 1990 February 5
- Accession number: 13272; 1996 February 29
- Accession number: 13937; 1999 April 29
Call numbers were simplified and reassigned. A list of obsolete call numbers is included in this inventory.
- Harvard Advocate (Organization). Records of the Harvard Advocate : an inventory
- Harvard University Archives
- EAD ID
Part of the Harvard University Archives Repository
Holding nearly four centuries of materials, the Harvard University Archives is the principal repository for the institutional records of Harvard University and the personal archives of Harvard faculty, as well as collections related to students, alumni, Harvard-affiliates and other associated topics. The collections document the intellectual, cultural, administrative and social life of Harvard and the influence of the University as it emerged across the globe.
Cambridge MA 02138 USA