Skip to main content
COLLECTION Identifier: 993-21;994-22

Day, Caroline Bond, 1889-1948. Papers of Caroline Bond Day, bulk, 1918-1931

The papers reflect Caroline Bond Day's interest in sociological and anthropological research of cross-cultural families, culminating in her publication, A Study of Some Negro-White Families in the United States. The papers contain significant information relating to family life, housing, occupations, salaries, religious affiliations, education, special interests, and political activities. The Papers also include materials CBD collected to aid in her research, such as news clippings, pamphlets, books, and manuscripts by other researchers. Included is a speech given by Earnest A. Hooton to Howard University students in 1929.

Dates

  • 1918-1931

Conditions Governing Use

The Peabody periodically reviews access restrictions for collections to ensure that they are up-to-date and in line with our responsibility to balance collections access with sensitivity and other considerations. Several subjects of Caroline Bond Day's study provided material about their family on the condition that it not be made available to the general public. Because of our respect for the restrictions on the material placed by these families, their materials are not open for academic research. If there are no preservation concerns, the rest of the collection is open for research, and (with advance written permission from the Peabody) for publication.

Extent

32 linear feet (16 boxes; 10 flat file drawers )

The Papers reflect CBD's research interests between 1918 and 1931, and also represent some of the issues which engaged E.A. Hooton in the field of physical anthropology. The documents cover the period from 1890 to 1931; however, the bulk of the material dates from 1918 to 1931. The collection occupies 16 boxes and 10 flat file drawers. Included are correspondence; anthropometry for ms; questionnaires; tables; guides for taking measurements; family histories; genealogical charts, with corresponding photographic negatives and prints, and hair samples; and manuscripts for her publication, A Study of Some Negro-White Families in the United States. The Papers also include materials CBD collected to aid in her research, such as news clippings, pamphlets, books, and manuscripts by other researchers. Included is a speech given by to Howard University students in 1929.

The intent of the study, according to CBD, was to develop a "cross-section of life among colored people of mixed blood in this country." The categories which CBD identified in her study were Negro, Indian, and White. She gathered sociological and genealogical data from at least 346 families, including 1,385 individuals born after 1860 and living in the East and in the South. CBD conducted interviews with families in Atlanta, Boston, Washington, D.C., and other cities. The majority of the photographs in the collection are copies of originals sent to CBD, which she returned. Although CBD never completed the sociological and genealogical aspects of the study to her satisfaction, the papers contain significant information relating to family life, housing, occupations and salaries, religious affiliations, education, special interests, and political activities. Unfortunately, there are no interview notes included in the Papers. Variations in names observed throughout the finding aid are attributable to discrepancies and inconsistencies in the data itself. For example, the name "Braithwaite" appears on a questionnaire as "Braithwaite" and on a genealogical chart as "Branthwaite." Variations also occur for married women. Errors of transcription occur on the index cards, charts, correspondence, and forms, and no effort has been made to establish consistency or uniformity. Bracketed information indicates alternative spellings, married names, or other plausible variations.

In 1994, Caroline's niece Adele Logan Alexander, generously donated a photograph of CBD (c. 1897), and two of her Radcliffe yearbooks (1917, 1919) to the PM Archives. These items were added to the CBD Papers, although they are a separate accession (994-72).

Biographical Sketch

Caroline Stewart Bond Day (CBD) was born on November 18, 1889, in Montgomery, Alabama, to Georgia and Moses Stewart. The Stewart family lived in Boston for several years. After CBD's father's death, her mother moved the family to Tuskegee, Alabama; there Georgia Stewart taught school and married John Percy Bond, a life insurance company executive. CBD adopted her stepfather's last name. Georgia and John Bond had two children together, a daughter, Wenonah Bond Logan, and a son, Jack Bond.

CBD was introduced to the field of anthropology in a class at Radcliffe taught by Earnest A. Hooton. During her senior year, she began collecting the physiological and sociological information on 'mixed' families which would lead to her publication A Study of Some Negro-White Families in the United States (1932). In her Radcliffe yearbook and alumna record, CBD listed social service work, not anthropology, as her ultimate career goal.

Following graduation from Radcliffe, CBD was employed by a variety of institutions. In 1919, she worked briefly in New York City in relief and support services for black soldiers and their families, and also served as student secretary of the National Board of the YWCA. Later that year, she moved to Waco, Texas, where she taught English at Paul Quinn College and Prairie View College in Houston, Texas. In March of 1920, Caroline Bond married Aaron Day (AD), a chemistry teacher at Prairie View College. AD had graduated from Prairie View in 1919, and served overseas during World War I. After his marriage, AD joined the National Benefit Life Insurance Company as a salesman. CBD's stepfather was also employed in this company. Because of AD's frequent promotions in the life insurance business, the Days moved several times during the next two decades. In 1922, they lived in Atlanta, Georgia, where CBD began teaching English and drama at her alma mater, Atlanta University. She remained there until 1929. During this period, she also published some essays and short stories, including the clearly autobiographical tale "The Pink Hat" (Sollors).

The research that CBD began with Hooton in her senior year at Radcliffe (1919) was "continued only in her spare time" over the next thirteen years. In 1927, when Hooton received a grant from the Bureau of International Research (BIR) of Harvard University and Radcliffe College, CBD received funds to support her research. While working in Hooton's lab, CBD collected and analyzed physiological and sociological information on 346 families, with the help of her half-sister, Wenonah Bond. This information was compiled in the 1928 manuscript "Preliminary Notes on Sociological Data for Negro-White Crosses." CBD took a leave from the project because of exhaustion and a rheumatic heart condition, and returned to Atlanta University for the 1928-29 school year. She again taught English and was said to have given the first class in anthropology ever offered at Atlanta University. With a graduate fellowship from the BIR, CBD returned to Radcliffe in late 1929 to complete her study, which culminated in the award of the Master of Arts degree in 1930

CBD's thesis was prepared for publication in the 1932 Harvard African Studies series Varia Africana. In 1930, the Days moved to Washington, D.C., where CBD taught and did social work. About this time, she befriended a young boy, Bernard (b. 1926) whom the Days adopted (although not legally). Bernard took their name as his own, becoming Bernard Aaron Day. From 1930 to 1933, CBD taught English at Howard University. In 1934, she became director of a settlement house in Washington, D.C., and AD joined the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Co. In 1937, CBD was appointed general secretary of the Phyllis Wheatley Branch of the Washington, D.C., YWCA.

In late 1939, the Day family moved to Durham, North Carolina, where AD was promoted to the head office of the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company. CBD taught English and drama at North Carolina College for Negroes (now North Carolina Central University), but was forced to resign due to recurrent illness. Apart from some unpublished writings and occasional brief teaching assignments, the rest of CBD's life was devoted to, among other things, "gardening, specializing in the Hawaiian hybiscus [sic]." She read voraciously and participated in Durham's active club life. Although a stroke (with ensuing paralysis of an arm) hampered CBD's bridge-playing, a friend fashioned a stand for her out of plywood to help in dealing cards. On May 5, 1948, CBD died of cardiac complications. Her husband retired from North Carolina Mutual in 1960, two years after being elected Vice President and Agency Director. AD died in 1963.

Sources:
  1. Alexander, AdeleLogan. "Day, Caroline Stewart Bond." Black Women in America: An HistoricalEncyclopedia, Darlene Clark Hine, ed. Brookly: Carlson Publishing, 1993.
  2. Alexander, Adele Logan. Interview of 10/17/1993, with Elizabeth E. Sandager.
  3. Boris, Joseph. "Day, Caroline Stewart Bond." Who's Who in Colored America: A Biographical Dictionary of Notable Living Persons of Negro Descent in America. v.1.New York: Who's Who in Colored America Corp. 1927.
  4. Day, Bernard.Interview of 6/23/1993 with Elizabeth E. Sandager.
  5. Dubois, W.E.B., "A Studyof Some Negro-White Families in the U.S." The Crisis (December 1932) no. 2.385.
  6. Edmonds, Helen G. Interview of 6/23/1993 with Elizabeth E. Sandager.
  7. Hooton, Earnest A. "Radcliffe Investigates Race Mixture." HarvardAlumni Bulletin. (April 3, 1930) no. 27 : 768-776.
  8. Radcliffe CollegeArchives. Afro-American Students at Radcliffe. SC96
  9. Ross,Hubert B. "Caroline Bond Day: Pioneer Black Female Anthropologist." Paper presented at theAmerican Anthropological Association (November 1983).
  10. Sollors, Werner,Caldwell Titcomb and Thomas A. Underwood, eds., "Caroline Bond Day," Blacks atHarvard: A Documentary History of African-American Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe. New York: New York Univeristy Press, 1993: 177-180.
  11. Williamson,Joel. New People: Miscegenation and Mulattos in the United States. New York: Free Pres, 1980.

Arrangement

The ordering of the series reflects CBD's working methodology, and the tools she used in compiling her book. The series include:
  1. I. Correspondence
  2. II. Anthropometry Forms
  3. III.Questionnaires, Tables, and Guides
  4. IV. Family Histories
  5. V.Genealogical Charts, Index, Photographs and Hair Samples
  6. VI. . Manuscripts
  7. VII. Print materials
  8. VIII. Photograph & Ephemera (#994-22)

Physical Location

Peabody Museum Archives

Immediate Source of Acquisition

993-21; 994-22

These papers were received by the Peabody Museum shortly after Day completed her master's thesis with Harvard anthropologist Earnest A. Hooton.

1932

Related Peabody Museum Collections

  1. Hooton, E. A. Papers 995-1

Processing Information

Processed by: Staff of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology with the support of a 1993 National Endowment for the Humanites grant.

1991-1996
Link to catalog
Title
Day, Caroline Bond, 1889-1948. Papers of Caroline Bond Day, bulk, 1918-1931: A Finding Aid
Author
Peabody Museum Archives
EAD ID
pea00032

Repository Details

Part of the Peabody Museum Archives Repository

The Peabody Museum Archives contains primary source materials that reflect the Museum’s archaeological and ethnographic research and fieldwork since its founding in 1866. Archival collections contain photographs, documents, papers, and records of enduring value that were created or collected by the Museum, its individual affiliates, or other related entities. The collections also document the history or provenience, as well as the creation of many of the Museum’s artifact collections. To learn more about research visits at the Peabody Museum, please see https://www.peabody.harvard.edu/research-visits.

Contact:
11 Divinity Ave.
Harvard University
Cambridge MA 02128 USA