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COLLECTION Identifier: HOLLIS 601668

Manley Ottmer Hudson papers


This collection includes material relating to Hudson's career, his activities in the negotiations of the Paris Peace Conference, 1918-1919, and with projects and problems of the League of Nations, including his efforts in urging the U.S. to join the League, his involvement with the American Committee in Geneva of the League of Nations Association, his positions as a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and judge of the Permanent Court of International Justice, his participation in other international matters and disputes, and his research activities as director of the Harvard Law School Research in International Law project (1930's).


  • 1894-1960

Conditions Governing Access

Access to these papers is governed by the rules and regulations of the Harvard Law School Library. This collection is open to the public, but is housed off-site at Harvard Depository and requires 2 business-day advance notice for retrieval. Consult the Special Collections staff for further information.

Conditions Governing Use

The Harvard Law School Library holds copyright on some, but not all, of the material in our collections. Requests for permission to publish material from this collection should be directed to the Special Collections staff. Researchers who obtain permission to publish from the Harvard Law School Library are also responsible for identifying and contacting the persons or organizations who hold copyright.


1 collection (168 boxes, 15 Paige boxes)

The 18,000 items in the papers of Judge Manley O. Hudson (1886-1960) span the years 1905 to 1960; a small number of research items used by Hudson date back to the 1890's.

The collection includes correspondence, memoranda, minutes of meetings, reports, transcripts, press releases, job applications, notes, journals, financial statements, form letters, legal documents, briefs, telegrams, drafts and outlines of speeches and writings, lecture notes, lists, bibliographies, index cards, news clippings, printed items, and maps.

The papers of Manley O. Hudson relate to his professional life as law teacher and legal scholar; his role in the negotiations of the Paris Peace Conference (1918-1919); his activities within the structure of the League of Nations and some of its subdivisions and special projects and problems (1919-1945); his efforts to impress individuals and organized groups in the U.S. with the urgency and importance of the country's joining the League of Nations through his speeches, writings, lectures, and personal letters; his involvement with the American Committee in Geneva of the League of Nations Association (1928-1936); his position as a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (appointed in 1933) and as a judge of the Permanent Court of International Justice (1936-1946); his involvement with other international matters and disputes, and his research activities as director of the Harvard Law School's Research in International Law project (1930's).

Among Hudson's correspondents were: Dean G. Acheson, Jane Addams, Norman Angell, B. Attolico, Newton D. Baker, Philip Baker, Ray Stannard Baker, Roger N. Baldwin, Jacob Billikopf, Bruce Bliven, Louis Dembitz Brandeis, Raymond L. Buell, Charles K. Burdick, Benjamin N. Cardozo, Joseph P. Chamberlain, Walter W. Cook, Herbert Croly, Henry W.L. Dana, John Dewey, Michael F. Doyle, Sir Eric Drummond, John Foster Dulles, George A. Finch, Raymond B. Fosdick, Felix Frankfurter, Ernst Freund, Lewis S. Gannett, Huntington Gilchrist, Leland Goodrich, Ernest Greenwood, Ake Hammerskjold, Learned Hand, Christian Herter, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Edward M. House, David Ernest Hudson, Charles Evans Hughes, Charles V. Imlay, Eldon R. James, Philip C. Jessup, Albert M. Kales, Harold J. Laski, Walter Lippmann, Amy Lowell, Julian W. Mack, Archibald MacLeish, John Mez, David Hunter Miller, Wayne Morse, Fridtjof Nansen, E.J. Phelan, Roscoe Pound, S.K. Ratcliffe, Leo S. Rowe, William H. Short, James T. Shotwell, Reginald Heber Smith, Adlai Stevenson, Harlan Fiske Stone, Arthur Sweetser, William Howard Taft, Albert Thomas, Norman Thomas, W.J.M. Van Eysinga, E.N. Van Kleffens, Thorstein B. Veblen, George W. Wickersham, John H. Wigmore, and Pres. Woodrow Wilson.

Two student notebooks of Manley O. Hudson (in Economics 6a and History 13) from his year of graduate work at Harvard University (1906-1907) were transferred to the student notebook collection of the Harvard University Archives.

Historical/Biographical Information

Hudson, Manley Ottmer, law professor, judge, international mediator, legal scholar.

b. St. Peters, Missouri, May 19, 1886.

s. David Ottmer and Emma (Bibb) H.

A.B., William Jewell College, Liberty, Missouri, 1906; A.M., 1907; LL.D., 1928.

Postgraduate work, Harvard University, 1906-1907; LL.B., 1910; S.J.D., 1917.

LL.D., University of Missouri, 1931.

D.C.L., University of Delaware, 1934.

Doctor of Politics, Peter Pazmony University, Budapest, 1935.

m. Janet Norton Aldrich, Dec. 7, 1930; children: Manley O., Jr.; Peter A.

Professor of Law, University of Missouri, 1910-1919.

Professor of Law, Harvard University, 1919-1923.

Bemis Professor of International Law, Harvard University, 1923-1954.

Secretary, Missouri Peace Society, 1912-1919, Missouri Children's Code Commission, 1915-1917.

Commissioner on Uniform State Laws, 1916-1919.

Secretary, National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, 1918-1919.

Special Assistant, U.S. Department of State, 1918-1919.

Attached to American Commission to Negotiate Peace, Paris, 1918-1919.

Member, legal section of Secretariat of League of Nations, 1919-1921, and during summers of 1922-1933.

Legal advisor to International Labor Conference, Washington, 1919; Genoa, 1920; Geneva, 1924; to International Conference on Russian Refugees, Geneva, 1922; to International Conference on Obsence Publications, Geneva, 1923.

Schiff Foundation Lecturer, Cornell University, 1925, 1928.

Lecturer in Academy of International Law, The Hague, 1925.

Reader in University of Calcutta, 1927.

U.S. Technical advisor, Conference on Codification of International Law, The Hague, 1930.

Borah Foundation Lecturer, University of Idaho, 1931.

White Foundation Lecturer, Bryn Mawr College, 1942.

Appointed member Permanent Court of Arbitration, 1933, 1939.

Member, Danish-Greek Permanent Conciliation Commission, since 1935.

Visiting Professor, Geneva Institute of International Studies, 1936.

Associate, Institut de Droit International, since 1936.

Judge, Permanent Court of International Justice, 1936-1946.

Member, U.N. Committee on Administrative Tribunal, 1946.

Member, U.N. International Law Commission.

Consultant and special lecturer on international law, Naval War College, Newport, R.I., 1946-1952.

Retired 1954-1960.

d. 1960.


The Permanent Court of International Justice and the Question of American Participation, 1925.

Current International Cooperation, 1927.

Handbook on The World Court, 5th edition, 1938.

Progress in International Organisation, 1931.

Treatise on Permanent Court of International Justice, 1934; French edition, 1936.

By Pacific Means, 1935.

Also articles in legal and international journals.


Cases on International law, 1929; second edition, 1936.

Collection of Nationality Laws (with R.W. Flournoy), 1930.

International Legislation, 1919-1936 (7 volumes).

Collection of Diplomatic and Consular Laws (with A.H. Feller), 1933.

World Court Reports (3 volumes), 1935, 1938.

Journal Editor:

Missouri Law Bulletin, 1914-1917.

American Journal of International Law, since 1924.

Series List

  1. Contingent I.
  2. ___Series I. Correspondence. MS boxes 1-22. The correspondence of Manley O. Hudson is arranged in three chronological periods. The first period, through 1918, covers correspondence before Hudson's appointment to the Harvard Law School. Period 2, from 1919 through 1944, includes his correspondence with individual members of the secretariat, agencies and committees of the League of Nations, and with members of League-of-Nations-related organizations; there is very little correspondence for the 1929 to 1944 period. The correspondence for Period 3, from 1945 until Hudson's death, covers professional matters and international subjects and activities.
  3. ___Series II. League of Nations and Related International Activities and Topics. MS boxes 23-38. Material included in this Series relates to Hudson's role and activities as a member of the League of Nations Secretariat and other League-connected enterprises. The Chronological series of memos (A) consists mainly of printed or mimeographed documents that came to Hudson's desk, such as calendars, agenda, and memoranda from the Secretariat; Assembly minutes; transcripts of speeches; and press coverage. The material dates mostly from the 1920's and 1930's, though a small amount of League of Nations and United Nations documents from the 1940's may also be found here.The second group of materials (B) in this Series relates to various subjects, international disputes, LN projects, publications, committees, special conferences, etc. This group is arranged alphabetically by subject. The third group of materials (C) relates to Hudson's involvement with the American Committee of the Geneva Institute of International Relations, subsequently called the American Committee in Geneva of the League of Nations Association. Included is correspondence between Hudson and Committee members in regard to the finances of the Committee, planned activities for its summer programs, applications for jobs, etc. A great deal of relevant material, both printed and mimeographed, was separated from this Series a long time ago and was catalogued by the Library. It may be found in the International Legal Studies Division of the Law School Library. Correspondence with individuals connected with the League of Nations will be found in the Correspondence Series, B. 1919-1944, since some of this correspondence is partially general in nature.
  4. ___Series III. Permanent Court of Arbitration. MS boxes 38-39. Material in this Series relates only to Hudson's appointment to Court. A scrapbook in Mrs. Hudson's home contains many additional letters and clippings related to the appointment.
  5. ___Series IV. Permanent Court of International Justice. MS boxes 39-41. Material in this Series covers Hudson's involvement with Court prior to his nomination, from Dec. 1920 until 1935, the relation of the U.S. to the Court, Hudson's appointment as Judge of the Court, his service on the Court from 1936 to 1946, and the reorganization of the Court in 1946. Materials include correspondence, memos, printed items,clippings, etc. A scrapbook in Mrs. Hudson's home contains additional letters and clipping related to Hudson's appointment to Court.
  6. ___Series V. Other International Activities. MS boxes 41-42. Material in this Series covers Professor Hudson's activities in the post-World War II period. His participation in some of these activities were those of a private consultant, and in others he acted on behalf of the government.
  7. ___Series VI. Honduras-Nicaragua. MS boxes 42-44. This Series contains printed materials on the dispute between Honduras and Nicaragua, typed memoranda and reports giving background for the dispute, official statements by both Honduras' and Nicaragua's representatives, and official reports of the U.S.Security Council. Hudson's role n the dispute is shown by his correspondence with representatives of both countries. Material in this Series dates from the 1890's through the 1950's.
  8. ___Series VII. Speeches, Lectures (other than classroom),Writings. MS boxes 44-49. This Series contains Hudson's writings, speeches and addresses in draft and in printed form. The material is arranged chronologically, and it covers such subjects as Hudson's efforts to promote the League of Nations in the U.S., information on the purposes and accomplishments of the Permanent Court of International Justice, special lecture series,some correspondence about the delivery of speeches, outlines of speeches, notes, etc. The content of some of the folders is analyzed in detail.
  9. ___Series VIII. Naval War College. MS box 49-50. Hudson was a special lecturer and consultant on international law at the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island,from 1946 to 1952; he taught on a part-time basis. This Series contains correspondence between Hudson and the administration of the War College, lecture notes, lecture outlines, miscellaneous course material, and official printed items relating to the U.S. Navy dating prior to 1946. Materials were arranged in a roughly chronological sequence, though much of it is undated.
  10. ___Series IX. Harvard Research in International Law. MS boxes 50-52. Hudson was a director of the Harvard Research in International Law, a Law School project. Research was undertaken in three areas: (1) nationality, (2) territorial waters,and (3) responsibility of states for harm done to foreign visitors.The project was undertaken in the early 1930's. This Series includes correspondence, drafts, and proofs.
  11. ___Series X. Harvard Law School. MS boxes 52-54. The majority of this material covers Hudson's activities as a faculty member during the early part of his teaching career. As is the case with his correspondence, there is an almost complete gap between the dates of 1925 and 1946. The material in this Series consists of correspondence, minutes of meetings, course notes, memoranda, and lists. It is arranged alphabetically by subject.
  12. ___Series XI. Biographical, Bibliographical Material. MS boxes 54-57. The biographical Series is spotty in nature, being strong on Hudson's early life from his college days through 1926 and fairly strong for the period of the 1930's and 1940's. It covers a variety of materials such as college work, miscellaneous personal correspondence and a large amount of newspaper clippings about the role Hudson played in various international projects. The Series is arranged chronologically.
  13. ___Series XII. Miscellany. MS box 57.
  14. ___Series XIII. Harvard Research in International Law (Addenda): Responsibility of States (Codification of International Law relating to the Responsibility of States). MS boxes 58-67. This Series contains administrative material, drafts, documents, proof sheets, additions and changes and comments on articles relating to the Harvard research project on the Codification of International law relating to the Responsibility of States.
  15. Contingent II.
  16. ___Series I. Correspondence.
  17. ______Subseries A. Early Correspondence: 1902-1918. MS boxes 68-73. This group of correspondence complements the group in Contingent I. However, it is exceptionally strong in biographical material relating to Hudson's years at William Jewell College and at Harvard Law School. Arrangement is by chronological periods, covering one or more years, and alphabetically by correspondent within these chronological periods.
  18. ______Subseries B. Correspondence 2: 1919-1944. MS boxes 73-104. This is a very extensive group of correspondence of thirty MS boxes containing approximately 12,000 items. It is particularly strong for the 1927 through 1936 period which is noticeably sparse in Contingent I. Correspondence covers Hudson's professional activities as law teacher, scholar, and member of professional associations, and his international involvements with the League of Nations, the two international courts and with his activities in this country arousing awareness and stimulating participation in international peace efforts, organizations and studies. Correspondence is arranged in chronological groups and in roughly alphabetical order within these groups. Occasionally chronological periods will overlap.
  19. ______Subseries C. Correspondence 3: 1945-1951. MS boxes 104-112. This is just a small group covering miscellaneous correspondence of the period 1945-1960. The major portion of correspondence for the period 1945 to Hudson's death in 1960 is found in Contingent I.This group is subdivided chronologically, and arranged alphabetically within each subdivision.
  20. ___Series II. Extended Correspondence. MS boxes 113-115. This group consists of correspondence with various important individuals for a specified period, usually 1927-1936 or 1941-1946. These individuals have other correspondence with Hudson in the general correspondence for the periods not specified here and/or under special topics. This is not an exhaustive grouping; other important correspondents have been left in the general correspondence. These correspondents were selected in part for their bulk.
  21. ___Series III. League of Nations and Related International Activities and Topics. MS boxes 115-122. This group follows closely the arrangement of the League papers in Contingent I. The chronological series of memos (A) spans the period 1920-1931. The topical materials (B) cover the period 1919-1951, the largest group being the International Labor Conference. The final group on the American Committee of the Geneva Institute of International Relations (C) is very small; it spans three periods: 1929-1930, 1934 and 1939-1940.
  22. ___Series IV. Postulates, Principles and Proposals: International Law of the Future. MS boxes 122-125. This group of papers relates to the meetings and the work of a small group of scholars and lawyers who were concerned with international law of the future and met between 1942 and 1944. Hudson was chairperson of this group. [See also L.B. Sohn papers in the HLS Library.]
  23. ___Series V. United Nations. MS boxes 125-129. This Series is a small group of forty-one folders that includes some International Court of Justice materials, UN memos and correspondence, etc. It is divided into three groups: (A) chronological materials, including mimeographs, correspondence, and some manuscripts; (B) a group of topical materials; and (C) International Law Commission materials. Most folders retain their original order. The International Law Commission grew out of the League of Nations Codification Conference. [See also LN codification 116-10, 119-7 to 119-8, and UN 126-8 and 127-1 to 127-4.]
  24. ___Series VI. Permanent Court of International Justice. MS boxes 129-134A. This group is divided into two parts: (A) Court Papers, and (B) Court Writings. The Court Papers span the period from 1923 to 1946, with a few items dating as late as 1952. They are arranged broadly in sequence by chronological periods. The Court Writings are arranged by book and article titles.
  25. ___Series VII. Other International Activities. MS boxes 135-142. These materials cover a wide range of topics, sometimes less clearly identifiable as International Activities, e.g. "Travel," which includes material from U.S. trips for meetings held to discuss international issues.In some folders the original order was retained; others have been arranged chronologically. These materials span the period from 1925 to 1956,with the majority being in the late 1940's.
  26. ___Series VIII. Speeches, Lectures (other than Harvard Law School Courses) and Writings. MS boxes 142-150. This group includes drafts and research material for speeches and writings. The bulk consists of materials on Hudson's Casebook on International Law. There is also some correspondence with publishers, arrangements for delivery of speeches, comments by professional colleagues of Hudson's on his writings, and some printed items.This group is arranged chronologically, with the undated or mixed dates coming last.
  27. ___Series IX. Naval War College. MS box 151. Hudson lectured at the Naval War College on international law fora number of years; he also revised the College Blue Book. These are his materials from both of those projects. Also included are Laurence Brown's lecture notes during the period that he substituted for Hudson at the College.
  28. ___Series X. Harvard Research in International Law. MS boxes 151-159. Started in 1924, and initially known as the Bureau for International Research, this group continued the work begun by the League of Nations Conference on Codification of International Law which was held at the Hague in March and April, 1930. Much of the activity was conducted in conjunction with the American Society of International Law's Committee on Codification. [See also: LN-codification, OIA-ASIL, and the Series Correspondence - by the names of members of the Executive and Advisory committees of HRIL.] This group is broken down into three sub groups: (A) Organization, meetings and general matters, (B) Financial matters, and (C) Research topics. The first two are arranged chronologically, the third alphabetically.
  29. ___Series XI. Harvard Law School. MS boxes 159-160. This Series includes a small group of miscellany consisting of a total of twelve folders. Hudson apparently turned his "official" papers relating to committee work, etc., over to the Dean's office when he retired. There is a small group in Contingent I. also.
  30. ___Series XII. Biographical and Bibliographical Material. MS boxes 160-162. This group is spotty in nature, like the corresponding group in Contingent I. It mainly consists of miscellaneous correspondence and reunion items. Personal correspondence for Hudson's pre-1919 years is in Contingent II, A. Early Correspondence. Material is arranged chronologically.
  31. ___Series XIII. Miscellany. MS boxes 162-163.
  32. ___Series XIV. Addenda. MS boxes 164-167.
  33. ___ Series XV. Paige Boxes. (For descriptions see Inventory)

Physical Location

Harvard Depository

Immediate Source of Acquisition

The papers of Manley O. Hudson, law professor, judge, international mediator, and legal scholar, were presented to the Harvard Law School in 1964 as a gift by his widow, Janet Aldrich Hudson, and his two sons, Manley O. Hudson, Jr. and Peter A. Hudson.


Paige Box 1

Student papers:

  1. (1) Hepburn, William McG.: "The Optional Clause" May 1930, typed MS, 81p.
  2. (2) Ramirez Boettner, Luis M.: "Commentaries on the Projects to Create an Inter-American Tribunal of Justice" August 1942. Typed MS, 216 p.

Paige Box 2

Manley O. Hudson Bibliography

  1. 1 typed draft, dated 22 April 1964 [transferred to CASE FILE in Curator's Office]
  2. 1 carton of 3x5 slips containing handwritten citations
  3. Several packages of loose index cards
  4. Groups of letter-size sheets with misc. notes and citations, unorganized

Processing Information

Prepared by Erika S. Chadbourn and assistants, December 1971.

Hudson, Manley Ottmer. Papers, 1894-1960: Finding Aid.
Harvard Law School Library, Cambridge, MA 02138
Language of description

Repository Details

Part of the Harvard Law School Library, Historical & Special Collections Repository

Harvard Law School Library's Historical & Special Collections (HSC) collects, preserves, and makes available research materials for the study of the law and legal history. HSC holds over 8,000 linear feet of manuscripts, over 100,000 rare books, and more than 70,000 visual images.

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