Paul M. Doty personal archive,
Paul Mead Doty (1920-2011) was the Mallinckrodt Professor of Biochemistry (1968-1988) at Harvard University. While on the Harvard faculty Doty embraced two careers: biochemistry, in which he founded the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (1967), and arms control and international security studies, in which he founded the Program in Science and International Affairs (1973). This collection documents Doty's academic and professional career from 1938 to 2011, including his involvement in nuclear arms control policy and international affairs. Correspondence, reports, reprints, conference proceedings, articles, journals, meeting minutes, memoranda, position papers, and photographs highlight Doty’s activities as a teacher, advisor, writer, and consultant on matters of science and international security at the highest levels of academia and government. The collection is a rich resource for research on the history of arms control and international security and the influence of academic scientists on public policy.
The Paul M. Doty personal archive is open for research use with the following exceptions:
- Harvard University records in this collection are restricted for 50 years from the date of creation.
- Personnel and student records in boxes 58-63 are closed for 80 years from the date of creation.
- Other restricted items are noted at the item level in the lists that follow.
Extent53.25 cubic feet (51 record cartons, 6 document boxes, 6 card boxes)
The Paul M. Doty personal archive documents Doty's academic and professional career from 1938 to 2011 in biochemistry and molecular biology and arms control and international security studies, with the heaviest concentration of records documenting Doty’s involvement in public policy and activism in nuclear and international issues. Correspondence, reports, reprints, conference proceedings, articles, journals, meeting minutes, memoranda, position papers, and photographs highlight Doty’s involvement as a teacher, advisor, writer, and consultant on matters of science and international security at the highest levels of academia and government. The collection is a rich resource on research in the history of arms control and international security and the influence of academic scientists on public policy.
Doty’s close involvement with organizations dedicated to the control, reduction, and elimination of weapons of mass destruction such as the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies, the Dartmouth Conference, and the Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs is extensively documented in the Project files. These materials illustrate Doty’s influential role in facilitating personal connections between scientists from different countries to promote policies to reduce the danger of armed conflict and international tensions. Moreover, the records reveal the key developments and internal policy discussions held in the United States and Soviet Union on issues related to arms control and international security.
The Resource files contain articles, news clippings, position papers, reports, book chapters, reprints, and other publications that detail arms control efforts from the late 1950s to early 2000s. They also contain publications by Doty’s wife, Helga Boedtker Doty. The records demonstrate Doty’s collaboration with colleagues at arms control conferences, workshops, and seminars to establish United States arms control policy and an international security framework to ensure world peace. Correspondence highlights Doty’s interaction with prominent arms control advocates in the United States and abroad, and also includes his reflections on arms control and international security issues such as the nuclear freeze, arms proliferation, and the strategic arms race. Meeting notebooks and daily records document Doty’s professional affiliations and contain descriptions of the arms control and international security conferences he attended. Doty’s publications, including reprints, news clippings, book chapters, speeches, position papers, and congressional testimony, document his professional and academic contributions to the fields of biochemistry and microbiology, and reveal his views on arms control and the threat of nuclear weapons to international security and world peace. There are also casual and formal photographs (including slides and negatives) of Doty with family, friends, and colleagues from 1946 to 2007 at professional conferences, on vacation, at birthday parties, and other social events.
This collection contains a small number of records related to Doty’s teaching activities at Harvard, including lecture notes, news clippings, examinations, and syllabi for his courses on nuclear strategy and arms control at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. Other records such as letters, reports, and memoranda document Doty’s involvement in the reorganization of biochemistry at Harvard in the early 1960s and the creation of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. News clippings also recount Doty’s chairmanship of the Special Committee to Review the Problems and Status of the General Education Program at Harvard in the early 1960s.
The Personal files contain chiefly biographical information about Doty including letters, attendance lists, and photographs related to his birthday celebrations from 1985 to 2010; completed personnel security questionnaires from government agencies and private contractors; and an assortment of curriculum vitae and biographical sketches from 1969 to 2011 that summarize Doty’s professional and academic contributions in the fields of biochemistry, microbiology, arms control, and international security. Records such as post cards, news clippings, and awards recount the trips Doty took to arms control conferences, describe important news events, and document the honors that Doty received during his career from professional organizations and learned societies. Additionally, these include Doty’s file inventories which provide an overview of the organizational scheme he established for his personal archive and identify material related to particular subjects. Researchers should note that Doty’s inventories were used as the basis for the arrangement and organization of this finding aid.
Paul Mead Doty (1920-2011) was the Mallinckrodt Professor of Biochemistry (1968-1988) at Harvard University. During his forty-two years on the Harvard faculty Doty embraced two careers: biochemistry, in which he founded the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (1967), and arms control and international security studies, in which he founded the Program in Science and International Affairs (1973).
Doty was born on June 1, 1920 in Charleston, West Virginia and moved to Chicora, Pennsylvania in 1927. He graduated from Pennsylvania State University in 1941 and received a PhD from Columbia University in 1944. He served as an Instructor at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute (1943-1946), Rockefeller Fellow at Cambridge University (1946-1947), and Assistant Professor at Notre Dame University (1947-1948) before coming to Harvard (1948) where he was appointed Associate Professor (1950) and Professor (1956).
Doty’s research at Harvard focused on protein and DNA structure especially in the recombination of separate DNA strands, a key to much of modern biotechnology. During his first twenty years at Harvard, Doty was a member of the Department of Chemistry. In 1967, he helped found the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and served as its first chairman (1967-1970). In 1973, with the support of the Ford Foundation, Doty established the Program in Science and International Affairs and served as its director on a half-time basis; in 1979 the Program evolved within the new Kennedy School of Government into a permanent Center for Science and International Affairs. Under Doty's leadership, the Center trained more than a dozen scholars each year in international security studies, and established a Harvard College course entitled The Nuclear Age, and the journal International Security (1976). The Center was renamed the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs in 1997.
Doty’s second career involving international security had its origins in his work on isotope separation for the Manhattan Project. From 1953 to 1954, Doty served on the United States Technological Capabilities Panel of the Science Advisory Committee of the Office of Defense Mobilization, formed to better understand the nuclear threat that could be posed by the Soviet Union to the United States. In 1957 Doty chaired the Federation of American Scientists and attended the first unofficial meeting of American and Soviet nuclear scientists in Pugwash, Nova Scotia, which later grew into the Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs. Here Doty made contact with Soviet scientists and decided that an opportunity existed to promote discussion of the technical aspects related to avoiding nuclear war outside of official government channels. In 1959, he became a consultant to the President’s Science Advisory Committee (PSAC) helping in the formulation of nuclear arms control proposals. This work provided Doty, an inside view of a wide range of scientific and military affairs. His work on the Committee led to the first examination of the harmful effects of pesticides on plants and animals and a reduced investment in civil defense.
In 1960, Doty undertook two initiatives: the formation of a National Academy of Sciences committee to promote and oversee the exchange of Soviet and American scientists for research purposes and the organization of two Pugwash Conferences, one in Moscow (1960), and the other in the United States (1961). These conferences provided a forum for international discussions among scientists on nuclear problems, and revealed that scientific collaboration could play a useful role despite the polarization of the Cold War. During these meetings, Doty established friendships with several leading Soviet scientists, including Peter Kapitza. In 1964, Doty formed the bilateral Soviet-American Disarmament Studies group, co-chaired by Mikhail Dmitrievich Millionshchikov, first vice-president of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. The work of this group influenced the Soviet Union to negotiate the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty concluded in 1972. In 1969, Henry Kissinger, National Security Advisor to President Richard M. Nixon, asked Doty to convene an informal advisory group to provide him with advice on nuclear weapons, missile defense, and related arms control issues. After 1971, Doty continued as a consultant to the Arms Control and Defense Agency and later became a member of the President’s Arms Control Advisory Group.
In 1973, Doty’s interests in national and international security affairs found a more formal outlet when he began a series of annual summer workshops on arms control, international security, and international science policy at the Aspen Institute in Colorado. Additionally in 1976, Doty became a board member of the Aspen Institute in Berlin where he initiated summer workshops on European security. Informal dialogue between the United States and the Soviet Union expanded sharply in the 1970s and Doty was deeply involved in two initiatives: The Dartmouth Conference and the National Academy of Sciences Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC). The Dartmouth Conference aimed to bring leading citizens of the two countries together to discuss matters of potential conflict and economic cooperation. Doty served on the Executive Committee and as chair of its Arms Control Task Force. The CISAC held separate meetings involving congressional, political, and military leaders as well as non-governmental specialists. These efforts are credited with contributing to the lowering of Cold War tensions and to the development of personal contacts among persons who would later become important officials, such as Brent Scowcroft (National Security Advisor under Presidents Gerald Ford (1975-1977) and George H.W. Bush (1989-1993)), Cyrus Vance (American Secretary of State from 1970 to 1980), as well as the Prime Minister of Russia Yevgeny Primakov (1998-1999). In the 1980s, the Committee on International Security and Arms Control met with its counterpart group the Soviet Academy of Sciences to focus on the technical aspects of nuclear arms control; published several reports on U.S. weapons policy and the U.S.-Soviet nuclear security relationship; and began sessions with Chinese scientists and military officers. Doty remained a CISAC member until April 1999.
Doty married Margaretta E. Grevatt (born 1919) in 1942. The couple had one son, Gordon Sutherland (born 1948), and divorced in 1953. Doty married Helga Boedtker (1924-2001) in 1954. They had three daughters: Marcia (born 1956), Rebecca (born 1959), and Katherine (born 1962). Helga Doty was a molecular biologist at Harvard University for more than 30 years. Doty died at his home on December 5, 2011.
Historical notes on organizations with which Paul Doty was involved
The organizations in which Doty was involved were all active concurrently, with overlapping membership and spheres of interest. Information, policies, and recommendations were shared among the groups and each group shaped the others. Content within individual documents confirms that, for instance, discussions Doty was having in 1971 and 1972 in meetings in Moscow sponsored by the AAAS were informed by talks that took place at the Pugwash meetings in those same years.
Some background information about these organizations may help to clarify the complex connections among them.
- Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs (started 1957)
- ___Although Pugwash was necessarily focused largely on US-Soviet relations in its early years, it was from its inception a multilateral conference. As the Cold War cooled, the conference increasingly included scientists from a wider range of countries and focused on issues that were less US- and Soviet-centric.
- American Academy of Arts and Sciences
- ___Committee on International Studies of Arms Controls (started March 1961)
- ______ Established after the 1960 Moscow Pugwash meeting, which was considered so effective that Doty and others moved to have more frequent meetings with Soviet representatives.
- ______Main promoter of bilateral discussions, via the Soviet-American Disarmament Study Group (SADS, 1964-75). (Though sometimes they would also have meetings with representatives of other nations.)
- ______Shares the same acronym (and very similar name) as the group that emerged in the 1980s under the aegis of the National Academy of Science. The NAS CISAC group appears to have picked up where this group left off.
- ______• Seems to have been a committee internal to AAAS; SADS was the public face of the group.
- ___Continuing Committee for Pugwash Conference
- ______This group, of which Doty was a member for many years, was responsible for deciding who would represent the United States at Pugwash events, and what topics or policies they should investigate or pursue while there. The Continuing Committee handled the logistics of inviting scientists and explaining the purpose of the meetings.
- National Academy of Science
- ___Committee on International Security and Arms Control (1980)
- ______Created after the dissolution of SADS, to pick up where they had left off in the pursuit of bilateral discussion, mostly regarding disarmament, between the US and USSR.
- Dartmouth Conferences (1962-1992)
- ___Differed from Pugwash and its spinoffs as it was not comprised solely (or even mostly) of scientists, nor was the initial focus primarily on disarmament. The Dartmouth conferences touched on all aspects of the US-Soviet relationship, including economic, military, and cultural issues. Doty was involved in the scientific aspects of the relationship.
- Aspen Institute (security/science program started in 1973)
- ___The Aspen Institute itself started in 1950. It is broadly interested in “humanistic studies,” with policy groups that investigate, discuss, and suggest national policy decisions affecting education, business, and other topics.
- ___Doty started what is now the Aspen Strategy Group in 1973, which sought to use the Institute’s financial resources to continue work that he had been doing through other venues (Pugwash and Dartmouth conferences, for example). Originally a bi-lateral group focusing on US-Soviet relations, it has since expanded its scope, with a more explicit consideration of US policy expectations than in other multilateral meetings.
The collection is arranged in four series:
- Project files, 1949-2008
- ___Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies, 1969-2005
- ___Committee on International Security and Arms Control, National Academy of Sciences, 1980-2000
- ___Dartmouth Conference, 1961-2000
- ___Doty Group, 1969-1972
- ___Joint Arms Control Seminars (Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and documentation of early arms control, 1958-1964, 1999
- ___Federation of American Scientists, 1949-1970, 2006
- ___Odyssey records, 1997-2007
- ___ United States. President's Science Advisory Committee, 1958-1973, 1988, 2005
- ___Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs, 1955-2008
- ___Soviet-American Disarmament Studies group, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1964-1977
- Resource files, 1940-2011
- ___Articles, 1981-1990
- ___Conferences and trips, 1964-2009
- ___ Correspondence, 1940-2011
- ___Documents [Background information], 1951-2008
- ___Institutions, 1945-2011
- ___Journals, 1936-2008
- ___People, 1960-2010
- ___Photographs, 1946-2007
- ___ Publications by Paul M. Doty [and Helga Boedtker Doty], 1940-2011
- ___References, 1951-1970
- ___Topics, 1953-2011
- Harvard University Activity files, 1938-2011
- ___Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, 1975-1997
- ___Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1965-2011
- ___Department of Chemistry, 1938-1970
- ___Special Committee to Review the Problems and Status of the General Education Program, 1964-1965
- Personal files, 1940-2011
- ___Birthday celebrations, 1985-2011
- ___Clearances, 1969-2002
- ___Curriculum vitae and biographical sketches, 1969-2011
- ___Doty's file inventories, 1986-2008
- ___PD Archives, 1940-2006
The Paul M. Doty personal archive was acquired by the Harvard University Archives through donation from Gordon Doty. Accession number: 18511; 2012 June 27.
- "Paul Mead Doty, 1920-2011." Biographical Memoirs. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press, 2013.
- Doty, Paul M., 1920-2011. Paul M. Doty personal archive, 1938-2011. PD, Curriculum vita and [biographical sketches], 1971-1997, HUM 177 Box 30, Folder 2. Harvard University Archives.
- Pederson, Thoru.
Paul Doty and the Modern Era of DNA as a Molecule.The FASEB Journal 26
This document last updated 2016 October 24.
- Doty, Paul M., 1920-2011.
- Doty, Helga Boedtker.
- Kissinger, Henry, 1923-
- Millionshchikov, Mikhail Dmitrievich, 1913-1973.
- Harvard College (1780- ) -- General Education Program.
- Harvard University.
- Harvard University -- Biochemistry.
- Harvard University -- Biology.
- Harvard University -- Curricula.
- Harvard University -- Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
- Harvard University -- Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology.
- Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies.
- Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs.
- Dartmouth Conference.
- Federation of American Scientists.
- National Academy of Sciences (U.S.) -- Committee on International Security and Arms Control.
- Pugwash Conferences on Science & World Affairs.
- United States -- President's Science Advisory Committee.
- Arms control.
- Arms control -- History -- Sources.
- Arms control -- Verification.
- Ballistic missiles.
- Biological weapons.
- Chemical weapons.
- Cold War.
- Education, Humanistic -- Massachusetts -- Cambridge.
- International cooperation.
- International relations.
- National security -- Europe.
- National security -- United States -- Decision making.
- National security -- Soviet Union -- Decision making.
- Nuclear arms control.
- Nuclear arms control -- Congresses.
- Nuclear disarmament -- Congresses.
- Nuclear nonproliferation.
- Nuclear warfare.
- Nuclear weapons (International law)
- Security, International.
- Science and state -- United States.
- Soviet Union -- Relations -- United States.
- Strategic Arms Limitation Talks.
- Strategic Defense Initiative.
- United States -- Foreign relations.
- United States -- Relations -- Soviet Union.
- United States -- Military policy.
- War -- Prevention.
- Weapons of mass destruction.
Formats and genres
- Audio cassettes.
- Black-and-white photographs.
- Black-and-white slides.
- Color photographs.
- Color slides.
- Compact discs.
- Conference proceedings.
- Curriculum vitae.
- Photograph albums.
- Résumés (personnel records)
- Video cassettes.
Processed July-September 2014 by Dominic P. Grandinetti.
Description of the Paul M. Doty personal archive was supported by the Harvard Library’s Hidden Collections initiative.
In preparing this collection, the archivist retained the original intellectual arrangement established by Doty. Processing details are described at the series level.
Researchers should note that Doty’s inventories were used as the basis for this arrangement and organization of this finding aid.
Processing involved the rehousing of materials in appropriate archival containers, the establishment of series and subseries hierarchy based on Doty's original categories, and the creation of this finding aid. Physical re-arrangement was minimal (restricted materials were placed at the end of the collection). The collection was intellectually organized in this finding aid by adopting (with some minor alterations) the record classification scheme found in Doty’s file inventories.
Doty’s original folder titles were retained; any folder titles and dates supplied by the archivist appear in brackets. Doty’s original hanging folder tabs were retained in each folder. In some cases, bound volumes and 3-ring binders stand alone and are not found in folders.
Additional analysis and description were contributed by Ross Mulcare in January 2016.
- Doty, Paul M., 1920-2011. Paul M. Doty personal archive, 1938-2011
- Language of description
- EAD ID
Part of the Harvard University Archives Repository
Holding nearly four centuries of materials, the Harvard University Archives is the principal repository for the institutional records of Harvard University and the personal archives of Harvard faculty, as well as collections related to students, alumni, Harvard-affiliates and other associated topics. The collections document the intellectual, cultural, administrative and social life of Harvard and the influence of the University as it emerged across the globe.
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