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COLLECTION Identifier: HOLLIS 011995457

Poll Observation Data from the Kenya General Elections held on 27 December 2007.


This digital archive represents a complete record of all paper materials produced by the Kenya Election Domestic Observation Forum (KEDOF), created by the National Council of Churches of Kenya (NCCK) for the purpose of monitoring and documenting Kenya’s 2007 election campaign and voting processes. In addition to these documents, the digital archive contains documents pertaining to the organization and governance of KEDOF, as well as ad hoc reports regarding the violence following the election.


  • December 2007-Feburary 2008.


Access Restrictions

Access is restricted. Digital facsimiles are available to users with a valid Harvard ID.


1 collection
1 collection

Digital facsimiles of documents collected during the three levels of the observation mission described above: policy-making and program design; pre-election training and observation; and election day observation booklets that recorded activities in over 27,000 polling places of Kenya’s 210 parliamentary constituencies.

Historical Note

KEDOF served as the primary national observation effort prior to and during the general elections of December 27, 2007. Pre-election political activities were observed in each of the 210 parliamentary constituencies. On the election day, KEDOF endeavored to station field observers at many of the 27,000+ polling places, and succeeded in training over 17,000 observers at short-notice.

The digitization of these election documents and data was the brain child of Andrew Harris, a Harvard graduate student, who had traveled to Kenya in search of resources for his doctoral research. While in Nairobi, Kenya, Andrew gained access to the original KEDOF documents with the approval of the NCCK. He then appealed, with success, to the HCL-Widener Library for assistance in funding the scanning of the documents. Guided by the motto: "For Wananchi" (For Citizens), the NCCK serves as Kenya's largest Christian organization, bringing together 43 member churches and organizations. The materials were temporarily archived at the Jumuia Conference Center, located 26 kilometers from Nairobi, Kenya. The center also hosts the NCCK's excellent permanent archives, tracing back to the date the organization was founded in 1913. Based on Andrew’s recommendation and coordination, NCCK readily made the materials available for scanning by a local company in Nairobi, Verve K.O. Ltd. in August 2009. Given their space constraints and archival priorities, Harvard’s DRS will therefore serve as the primary digital repository of the archive of the KEDOF documents.

KEDOF compiled data from the election day polling-station level booklets and published the results in June 2008 in a report entitled, The Kenya Election 2007: Losses, Gains, and Lessons (HOLLIS: 014126258).


The organization of documents here reflects the organization of KEDOF itself. Given its observation mission, KEDOF had three primary levels of observation.

  1. First, the national secretariat functioned as a steering committee, making policy decisions and designing broad programmatic goals. An executive committee then implemented these decisions. Documents from this part of KEDOF are contained in Series I. Administrative Documents.
  2. The second level comprised constituency-level observers, who provided pre-election observation of campaigns and political activities, and organized the selection and training of election day observers. These documents are organized by constituency and are contained in Series II. Pre- and Post-Election.
  3. The organization's third level produced the majority of the materials in this digital archive namely, the election day polling station observation booklets. These documents are organized by constituency and are contained in Series III. Polling Station Observation Booklets.


On completion of the monitoring process, the paper documents were received and archived by the National Council of Churches of Kenya (NCCK). Also added to this archive were materials generated ad hoc by observers that documented the resulting post-election violence in January and February of 2008. Digital images of the paper documents were acquired by Widener Library in 2009. The digital archive is stored in the Digital Repository Service (DRS) of the Harvard Library, under the stewardship of Widener Library.

Related Materials

  1. The Kenya Election 2007: Losses, Gains and Lessons. (HOLLIS: 014126258). A Report by The Kenya Elections Domestic Observation Forum (KEDOF), Nairobi, Kenya, 2008. KEDOF compiled a final report of their observation activities, derived in part from the documents in the digital archive. Includes the supplement Kenya Elections Domestic Observation Forum (KEDOF): Election Day Checklist for the Kenya General Elections, 27th December 2007, an example of the booklet used by KEDOF observers on election day.


  • HOLLIS: 011396544 Electoral Commission of Kenya: free and fair elections: guidelines for candidates and party agents. Nairobi: Electoral Commission of Kenya, [2007?]
  • HOLLIS: 013136042 Defining moments: reflections on citizenship, violence, and the 2007 general elections in Kenya. Edited by Kimani Njogu. Nairobi, Kenya: Twaweza Communications, 2011.
  • HOLLIS: 012049849 The general elections in Kenya, 2007. Edited by Jerome Lafargue. Nairobi: Institut francais de recherche en Afrique; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers, c2009. NOTE: "This book is a translation of a special issue of IFRA’s journal Les cahiers d’Afrique de l’Est, no. 37"--Introduction.
  • HOLLIS: 011901467 Report of the Independent Review Commission on the General Elections Held in Kenya on 27th December 2007. Nairobi: Govt. Printer, [2008]
  • HOLLIS: 012709181 Root causes and implications of the post election violence of 2007: a report of the research undertaken by the Kenya Thabiti Taskforce 2008. Commissioned by the Inter-religious Forum. Nairobi : Inter-religious Forum, c2009.
  • HOLLIS: 012846319 Tensions and reversals in democratic transitions: the Kenya 2007 general elections. Edited by Karuti Kanyinga and Duncan Okello. Nairobi: Society for International Development: Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi, 2010.
  • HOLLIS: 012162901 Violating the vote: a report on the 2007 general elections. Kenya Human Rights Commission. [Nairobi: Kenya Human Rights Commission, 2008]
  • HOLLIS: 011804586 Who is guilty?: youth perspectives on the 2007 pre-polls electoral violence in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: Youth Agenda, [2007]

Journal Articles

Processing Information

Coordination and organization of scanning was facilitated by NCCK Deputy General Secretary Oliver Kisaka Simiyu and ICT Manager Andrew Wekesa. The preservation of the KEDOF materials would not have been possible without their support. Scanning of the documents, made possible by generous funding from the Harvard College Library, was done by Verve K. O. Ltd., Nairobi, Kenya (

Kenya Elections Domestic Observation Forum (KEDOF). Poll Observation Data from the Kenya General Elections held on 27 December 2007: A finding aid.
Harvard College Library,
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Repository Details

Part of the Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Library, Harvard Library, Harvard University Repository

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